Python 2.7 Cheat Sheet by Real Python at https://realpython.com/

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1. Primitives

Numbers

Python has integers and floats. Integers are simply whole numbers, like 314, 500,

and 716. Floats, meanwhile, are fractional numbers like 3.14, 2.867, 76.88887.

You can use the type method to check the value of an object.

>>> type(3)

<type 'int'>

>>> type(3.14)

<type 'float'>

>>> pi = 3.14

>>> type(pi)

<type 'float'>

In the above example, pi is the variable name, while 3.14 is the value.

You can use the basic mathematical operators:

>>> 3+3

6

>>> 3-3

0

>>> 3/3

1

>>> 3*3

9

>>> 3**3

27

>>> num = 3

>>> num = num - 1

>>> print num

2

>>> num = num + 10

>>> print num

12

>>> num += 10

>>> print num

22

>>> num -= 12

>>> print num

10

>>> num *= 10

>>> num

100

What happens when you divide 9 by 4?

>>> 9 / 4

2

What is the actual answer? 2 remainder 1 right? Or: 2.25

In Python 2.7x, when you divide a whole number by a whole number and the

answer is a fractional number, Python returns a whole number without the

remainder. In other words, this type of divison rounds the fraction down to the

nearest whole number (commonly known as flooring the results).

Let's look at 12 divided by 5. If we want to get a fraction, we can just turn one of

the numbers into a float.

>>> 12 / 5.0

2.4

>>> 12 / float(5)

2.4

There's also a special operator called a modulus, % , that returns the remainder

after integer division.

>>> 10 % 3

1

>>> 10 / 3

3

One common use of modulous is determining if a number is divisible by another

number. For example, we know that a number is even if it's divided by 2 and the

remainder is 0.

>>> 10 % 2

0

>>> 12 % 2

0

Finally, make sure to use parentheses to enforce precedence.

>>> (2 + 3) * 5

25

Strings are used quite often in Python. Strings, are just that, a string of characters.

Strings

A character is anything you can type on the keyboard in one keystroke, like a

letter, a number, or a backslash.

Python recognizes single and double quotes as the same thing, the beginning and

ends of the strings.

>>> “string list”

‘string list’

>>> ‘string list’

‘string list’

Now what if you have a quote in the middle of the string? Python needs help to

recognize quotes as part of the English language and not as part of the Python

language.

>>> “I can’t do that”

“I can’t do that”

>>> “He said \“no\” to me”

“He said “no” to me”

Now you can also join strings with use of variables as well.

>>> a = “first”

>>> b = “last”

>>> a + b

firstlast

If you want a space in between, you can change a to the word with a space after.

>>> a = “first ”

>>> a + b

“first last”

There are also different string methods for you to choose from as well - like

upper , lower , replace , and count .

Upper does just what it sounds like, changes your string to have uppercase

letters.

>>> w='woah!'

>>> w.upper()

'WOAH!'

Lower is just that as well, keeping your string in lower case letters.

>>> w='WOAH!'

>>> w.lower()

'woah!'

Replace allows you to replace any character with another character.

>>>r='rule'

>>>r.replace('r','m')

'mule'

Count lets you know how many times x appears in the string (can be numbers or

a string of words as well).

>>>numbers=['1','2','1','2','2']

>>>numbers.count('2')

3

You can also format strings with the format method.

>>> "{0} is a lot of {1}".format("Python", "fun!")

'Python is a lot of fun!'

Boolean values are simply True or False .

Check to see if a value is equal to another value with two equal signs.

Booleans

>>> 10 == 10

True

>>> 10 == 11

False

>>> "jack" == "jack"

True

>>> "jack" == "jake"

False

To check for inequality use != .

>>> 10 != 10

False

>>> 10 != 11

True

>>> "jack" != "jack"

False

>>> "jack" != "jake"

True

You can also test for > , < , >= , and <= .

>>> 10 > 10

False

>>> 10 < 11

True

>>> 10 >= 10

True

>>> 10 <= 11

True

>>> 10 <= 10 < 0

False

>>> 10 <= 10 < 11

True

>>> "jack" > "jack"

False

>>> "jack" >= "jack"

True

Lists are containers for holding values.

>>> fruits = ['apple','lemon','orange','grape']

>>> fruits

['apple', 'lemon', 'orange', 'grape']

To access the elements in the list you can use the placement in the list as an

idicator. This means numbering the items aligned with their placement in the list.

But, you must remember that the list starts with 0.

>>> fruits[2]

‘orange’

If the list is longer and you need to count from the end you can also do that.

>>> fruits[-2]

‘orange’

Now, sometimes lists can get long and you want to keep track of how many

elements you have in your list. To find this, use len which is the length function.

>>> len(fruits)

4

Use append to add a new object to the end of the list and pop to remove objects

from the end.

2. Collections

Lists

>>> fruits.append('blueberry')

>>> fruits

['apple', 'lemon', 'orange', 'grape', 'blueberry']

>>> fruits.append('tomato')

>>> fruits

['apple', 'lemon', 'orange', 'grape', 'blueberry', 'tomato']

>>> fruits.pop()

'tomato'

>>> fruits

['apple', 'lemon', 'orange', 'grape', 'blueberry']

Check to see if a value exists using in .

>>> 'apple' in fruits

True

>>> 'tomato' in fruits

False

A dictionary optimizes element lookups. It uses keys and values, instead of

numbers as placeholders. Each key must have a value. You can used a word to

look up a value.

>>> words={'apple':'red','lemon':'yellow'}

>>> words

{'lemon': 'yellow', 'apple': 'red'}

>>> words['apple']

'red'

>>> words['lemon']

'yellow'

This will also work with numbers.

Dictionaries

>>> dict={'one':1,'two':2}

>>> dict

{'two': 2, 'one': 1}

>>>

Output all the keys as a list with keys() and all the values with values() .

>>> words.keys()

['lemon', 'apple']

>>> words.values()

['yellow', 'red']

The IF statement is used to check if a condition is true.

Essentially, if the condition is true, the Python interpreter runs a block of

statements called the if-block. If the statement is false, the interpreter skips the ifblock

and processes another block of statements called the else-block. The else

clause is optional.

Let's look at two quick examples.

3. Control Statements

IF Statements

>>> num = 20

>>> if num == 20:

... print 'the number is 20'

... else:

... print 'the number is not 20'

...

the number is 20

>>> num = 21

>>> if num == 20:

... print 'the number is 20'

... else:

... print 'the number is not 20'

...

the number is not 20

>>> num = 21

>>> if num == 20:

... print 'the number is 20'

... elif num > 20:

... print 'the number is greater then 20'

... else:

... print 'the number is less then 20'

...

the number is greater then 20

There are 2 kinds of loops used in Python. The For loop and the While loop. For

loops are traditionally used when you have a piece of code which you want to

repeat n number of times. They are also commonly used to loop or iterate over

lists.

Loops

>>> colors =('red','blue','green')

>>> colors

('red', 'blue', 'green')

>>> for favorite in colors:

... print "I love " + favorite

...

I love red

I love blue

I love green

While loops, like the For Loop, are used for repeating sections of code - but unlike

a for loop, the while loop will not run n times, but until a defined condition is met.

>>> num = 1

>>> num

1

>>> while num <=5:

... print num

... num += 1

...

12345

Functions are blocks of reusable code that perfrom a single task.

You use def to define (or create) a new function then you call a function by

adding parameters to the function name.

4. Functions

>>> def multiply(num1, num2):

... return num1 * num2

...

>>> multiply(2,2)

4

You can also set default values for parameters.

>>> def multiply(num1, num2=10):

... return num1 * num2

...

>>> multiply(2)

20

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